Essay On Teen Violence
CORPORAL PUNISHMENT - philosophical study
Philosophical study demolishing the arguments usually put forward against corporal punishment.
Essay On Teen Violence
We would have to rule out those parts of the body where injury is likely to result. Finally, many of the arguments about corporal punishment rest, at least in part, on empirical questions. If, as i have argued is not the case, the evidence were compelling that mild and infrequent corporal punishment slightly elevated the chances of violent physical abuse, then, ex hypothesi, the premise that such corporal punishment has this effect would be substantiated.
Straus, beating the devil out of them corporal punishment in american families (new york lexington books, 1994), p. If corporal punishment is to be just, it must be inflicted without consideration for differences in race and sex. Teachers, after all, have relatively little contact with their pupils and the little they do have is usually in large classes.
The detention may well cause the hardship, but that is quite different from punishing it. My argument here is not to justify one evil by the existence of another. It is true that some scale could be introduced without corporal punishment.
However, this premise by itself would be insufficient to demonstrate the wrongfulness of corporal punishment. Robert larzelere, should the use of corporal punishment by parents be considered child abuse? -- no, in mason and gambrill (eds. I shall not attend to this argument here, but i do so in the child, the rod and the law in acta juridica, 1996, pp.
One study cited by opponents of corporal punishment is that of richard walters and lillian demkow, timing of punishment as a determinant of response inhibition, child development 34 (1963) 207-14. I have a distinct distaste for the practice, and in the years that i taught school children i never resorted to corporal punishment. If we suggest that hitting a wrongdoer imparts the message that violence is a fitting means to resolve conflict, then surely we should be committed to saying that detaining a child or imprisoning a convict conveys the message that restricting liberty is an appropriate manner to deal with people who displease one.
If girls are not caned for the same offenses for which boys are caned, then the boys are the victims of discriminatory treatment. A punishment might have some deterrent effect without being extremely effective. There are a number of settings in which corporal punishment has been used, but my focus will be on homes and schools. Providing therapy would convey the message that people with whom one disagrees are to be viewed as sick and deserving of treatment. There are numerous other instances of corporal punishment in american schools that are less well known but no less serious.
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Essay On Teen Violence
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Essay On Teen Violence
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This consideration reinforces the argument that corporal punishment occupies an important place in the scale of punishments. We would have to rule out those parts of the body where injury is likely to result. For retributivists, punishment is justified if it is deserved. Rather what is called for is a sensitization of those (such as doctors and teachers as well as children themselves) who are well placed to detect abusive punishment. Adah maurer, the case against corporal punishment in schools, p.
I understand degradation to involve a lowering of somebodys standing, where the relevant sense of standing has to do with how others regard one, and how one regards oneself. Moreover, because the available evidence shows no serious harm from mild and infrequent corporal punishment, there seem to be poor grounds for suggesting that for retributivists the punishment should be regarded as unacceptably severe. Second, although i think that corporal punishment is sometimes justified, i nevertheless feel uncomfortable about the idea of people being punished physically. I am happy to stipulate the absence of physical injury because the claim that all corporal punishment results in such injury is more demonstrably false. This is the idea that it would be wrong to beat a child in anger.
Where children are beaten for expressing unpopular ideas or for asking too many questions, the argument that it will lead to subservience to authority is greatly strengthened. In some countries, corporal punishment of females is outlawed, while it is legal and widely practiced on males. A more compelling argument in favor of the limited use of corporal punishment is that it plays a significant role on the scale of punishments. Just as school corporal punishment is seen by its opponents as originating in failed pedagogical relationships, so it is believed to compromise them further. In other words, the argument is not specifically against corporal punishment, but against punishment generally. Some of the arguments for why corporal punishment does not deter draw on research that suggests that for punishment to be effective it must meet certain conditions -- conditions that would be impossible (and perhaps also undesirable) to fulfill. The fact that there are some parents and teachers who inflict physical punishment in an abusive way does not entail the conclusion that corporal punishment should never be inflicted by anybody. Rubin williams, corporal punishment socially sanctioned assault and battery, in cryan (ed. This page is just one of this websites over 2,000 pages of factual documentation and resources on corporal punishment around the world. I do not think that the differences support this conclusion.STEPS to End Violence (STEPS) is a holistic program of services for victims of gender-based violence with a focus on prevention, intervention, and policy advocacy.
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Thus one way in which one might be degraded is by being shamed. The objection takes too crude a view of human psychology and the message that punishment can impart. They, like the animals on whom punishment studies are done, are unable to draw the connection between a wrong done at one time and a punishment inflicted much later. In other words, there might well be certain instances in which this morally relevant consideration will tip the balance in favor of inflicting corporal punishment, rather than opting for some other form of punishment. My intuitions suggest that this lowering of peoples standing surpasses that implicit in corporal punishment per se, even though it is obviously the case that corporal punishment could be meted out in a manner in which it were aggravated Buy now Essay On Teen Violence
To know how effective punishment is one must know what the incidence of the wrongdoing would be if prior punishments for it had not been inflicted. Finally, the number and intensity of the blows would have to be calculated to avoid any chance of injury. Edfeldt, violence towards children in the united states and sweden, child abuse and neglect 10 (1986) 501-10. Some of the arguments for why corporal punishment does not deter draw on research that suggests that for punishment to be effective it must meet certain conditions -- conditions that would be impossible (and perhaps also undesirable) to fulfill. See, for example, adah maurer, corporal punishment, american psychologist (august 1974), p Essay On Teen Violence Buy now
One might, for example, replace corporal punishment with detention of longer duration. Here i shall discuss a partial list of conditions for just corporal punishment. Briefly, the facts of the case are that on group of pupils at drew junior high school in florida were slow in leaving the stage of the school auditorium when a teacher asked them to do so. While some people are opposed to corporal punishment anywhere, even by parents in the home, others oppose only its practice outside the home. That does not preclude their being undesirable, but it is hard to see how, in an era of increased tolerance of diversity in sexual orientation and practice, we can consistently label mild masochism as perverse Buy Essay On Teen Violence at a discount
One of these is the site on the body where the punishment will be administered. Some studies have suggested that abusive parents use corporal punishment more than nonabusive parents, but other studies have shown this not to be the case. One argument that is intended as an attack on both mild and severe cases of corporal punishment makes the claim that physically punishing people degrades them. Moreover, not all institutional settings are equally impersonal. While some people are opposed to corporal punishment anywhere, even by parents in the home, others oppose only its practice outside the home.
However, the argument would have no force against a retributivist theory, according to which a punishment can be deserved whether or not it is effective Buy Online Essay On Teen Violence
Discrimination against women and girls in many areas has justifiably been an object of concern. Larzelere, a review of the outcomes of parental use of nonabusive or customary physical punishment, pediatrics 98, supplement (1996) 824-28. I have indicated that some recent studies suggest that further research might yield satisfactory evidence. If one accepts the pain without injury view (or something close to it), there are a number of conditions that will be important. Some might suggest, for example, that girls ought to be treated more gently than boys because girls have a more delicate constitution.
It is true that some scale could be introduced without corporal punishment. But because it is even more difficult to monitor parental compliance with an unqualified ban on corporal punishment than it is to monitor parental compliance with a ban on only severe physical punishment, this monitoring problem provides no support for the elimination of all corporal punishment in homes Buy Essay On Teen Violence Online at a discount
Thus we cannot turn to the theories themselves for answers to these questions. The chances of having suicidal thoughts, according to this study, decreases marginally with one incident of corporal punishment during adolescence, then rises slightly for three to five episodes of corporal punishment. However, as in other forms of punishment, there may be a moral stigma for the family. People and violence in south africa (cape town oxford university press, 1990), pp. First there could be restrictions on 1) the offenses for which the child may be physically punished 2) the implement used to inflict the punishment 3) the number of blows 4) the places on the body to which such punishment may be administered Essay On Teen Violence For Sale
Do they gain any strength in numbers? To distinguish between two ways an objection may fail 1) because it rests on premises for which there is insufficient or no evidence or 2) because the premises, although substantiated by sufficient evidence, do not lead to the desired conclusion. If it did have this entailment, then, for example, the consumption of any alcohol by anybody prior to driving would have to be condemned on the grounds that some people cannot control how much alcohol they consume before driving. Contrary to the views of those who oppose all physical punishment, it is not implausible to think that such punishment, if inflicted under the appropriate conditions, might do some good For Sale Essay On Teen Violence
They, like the animals on whom punishment studies are done, are unable to draw the connection between a wrong done at one time and a punishment inflicted much later. The argument is that corporal punishment stems from some sexual perversity (on the part of the person inflicting the punishment) and can in turn cause sexual deviance (in the person punished). The punishment used was a loud unpleasant sound from a buzzer. The fact that there are some parents and teachers who inflict physical punishment in an abusive way does not entail the conclusion that corporal punishment should never be inflicted by anybody. Parents are also more likely to know their children better than teachers know their pupils Sale Essay On Teen Violence
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